HD 44594 / HR 2290
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HD 44594 is a yellow-orange
star like our Sun, Sol.
HD 44594 is located about 83.8 light-years (ly) from Sol. It lies in the southwest corner (6:20:6.1-48:44:27.9, ICRS 2000.0) of Constellation Puppis, the Stern of the legendary ship Argo Navis. The star can be found: northwest of Canopus (Alpha Carinae); northeast of Beta Pictoris; west of Tau Puppis; southwest of Nu Puppis; and south of Eta Columbae.
The star was first designated as CD-48 2259 in a visual survey of southern stars begun in 1892 at the Astronomical Observatory of Cordoba in Argentina under the direction of its second director John M. Thome (1843-1908). Thome died before the completion of this southern sky atlas in 1914, when 578,802 stars from declination -22° to -90° were published as the Cordoba Durchmusterung ("Survey"). The "CD" is an extension of an older catalogue by Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (1799-1875) in 1863 on the position and brightness of 324,198 stars between +90° and -2° declination that were measured over 11 years from Bonn, Germany, made with his assistants Eduard Schönfeld (1828-1891) and Aldalbert Krüger (1832-1896), which became famous as the Bonner Durchmusterung ("Bonn Survey") abbreviated as BD. The BD and CD were greatly expanded and extended into the modern age of photographic surveys with the subsequent creation of the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung from South Africa.
Today, many astronomers refer to this star as HD 44594, as designated in the Henry Draper (1837-82) Catalogue with extension (HDE), a massive photographic stellar spectrum survey carried out by Annie Jump Cannon (1863-1941) and Edward Charles Pickering (1846-1919) from 1911 to 1915 under the sponsorship of a memorial fund created by Henry's wife, Anna Mary Palmer. As a relatively bright star in Earth's night sky, HD 44594 is also catalogued as Harvard Revised (HR) 2290, a numbering system derived from the 1908 Revised Harvard Photometry catalogue of stars visible to many Humans with the naked eye. The HR system has been preserved through its successor, the Yale Bright Star Catalogue -- revised and expanded through the hard work of E. Dorrit Hoffleit and others. (More discussion on star names and catalogue numbers is available from Alan MacRobert at Sky and Telescope and from Professor James B. Kaler's Star Names.)
HD 44594 is a yellow-orange main sequence dwarf star of spectral and luminosity type G3-4 V. Similar to Sol (Giusa Cayrel de Strobel, 1996; Cayrel de Strobel and Bentolila, 1989; Hardorp et al, 1982; and Cayrel de Strobel, 1981), this possible "Solar twin" may have roughly the same mass, the same diameter (Pasinetti-Fracassini et al, 2001; and Wesselink et al, 1972), and 1.25 times its luminosity. It appears to be almost 1.55 times as enriched than Sol in elements heavier than hydrogen ("metals") based on its abundance of iron (B.J. Taylor, 2003). With low chromospheric activity, the star appears to be much older than Sol's 4.6 billion years (Guinan et al, 1999; and Fernley et al, 1996). The European Space Agency has used ultraviolet spectral flux distribution data to determine effective temperatures and surface gravities of stellar atmospheres, including those of HD 44594. Useful catalogue numbers and designations for the star include: HR 2290, Hip 30104, HD 44594, CD-48 2259, CP(D)-48 833, SAO 217861, FK5 2486, and LTT 2525.
An Earth-type planet with liquid water on its surface would require a stable orbit centered around 1.1 AU from HD 44594 -- just over the orbital distance of Earth in the Solar System. Assuming that the star has about one Solar-mass, such a planet would have an orbital period lasting close to 1.2 Earth years or around 430 days. Astronomers would find it very difficult to detect an Earth-sized planet around this star using present methods.
The following table includes all star systems known to be located within 10 light-years (ly), plus more bright stars within 10 to 20 ly, of HD 44594.
|Star System||Spectra &|
|HR 2157 AB||G0 V-IV |
|HR 2158 AB||F4 V |
|HR 2548||F5 III||9.0|
|CD-46 2096||M V||8.8|
|CD-43 2523 AB||G-K V |
|* plus bright stars *||. . .|
|CD-46 1936 AB||G5 V |
|CD-42 2503||G5 V||12|
|HR 2162 AB||G6 V |
|CD-49 2676||G6 V||14|
|CP-53 933||G2 V||15|
|CP-60 604||G1 V||18|
|CD-52 2043||K3 V-IV||18|
|CD-51 2507||G5 V-IV||18|
|Eta1 Pictoris||F2 V||19|
|Iota Puppis||F0 IV||19|
Up-to-date technical summaries on this star can be found at: the Astronomiches Rechen-Institut at Heidelberg's ARICNS, the HIPPARCOS Catalogue using the VizieR Search Service mirrored from the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS); NASA's ADS Abstract Service for the Astrophysics Data System; the SIMBAD Astronomical Database mirrored from CDS, which may require an account to access; and the NSF-funded, arXiv.org Physics e-Print archive's search interface.
Representing the Stern, or Poop deck, of the Argo Navis, Puppis is one of the three constellations that once formed the huge constellation Argo Navis (the ship of the Argonauts), whose stars skimmed the southern horizon, or sea, when seen from Greece. In 1763, the Abbé [Abbot] Nicholas Louis de La Caille (1713-1762) divided the Argo Navis into three smaller constellations: Carina (the Keel), Puppis (the Stern), and Vela (the Sail). For more information on stars and other objects in Constellation Puppis, go to Christine Kronberg's Puppis. An illustration is available at David Haworth's Puppis.
For more information about stars including spectral and luminosity class codes, go to ChView's webpage on The Stars of the Milky Way.
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